Introductions

Gravitational Waves

Gravitational Waves: An Introduction

Gravitational Waves can be defined as disturbances in the curvature of spacetime, generated by accelerated masses, that propagate as waves outward from their source at the speed of light. This means that gravitational waves transport energy as gravitational radiation, which is…


Gravity Assist

Gravity Assist: The Basics

In orbital mechanics and aerospace engineering, a gravity assist is the use of the relative movement and gravity of a planet or other astronomical object to alter the path and speed of a spacecraft, typically to save propellant and reduce expense. The origins of a gravity assist can trace its origins to the…


Atmosphere Atmospheric Science

Atmospheric Science

Atmospheric science is the study of the Earth’s atmosphere and its various inner-working physical processes. The field of atmospheric science has since been extended to the field of planetary science and the study of the atmospheres of the planets and natural satellites of the solar…


Sunspot solar maximum Solar Cycle 25

Solar Maximum Explained

After looking at the solar minimum in depth, it is only natural to discuss the opposite effect, which is the solar maximum. Solar maximum, sometimes abbreviated as solar max, is a regular period of greatest Sun activity during the…


Gravity Fundamental Forces

Gravity: An Introduction

Gravity is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy are brought toward. Another term that is often used to describe how this works is that objects gravitate toward one another. As gravitational attraction of the original gaseous matter…


SpaceX #LaunchAmerica Space Launch Traditions NASA Future Spaceflight CRS-21

Space Launch Traditions: An Introduction

Everyone has a tradition for anything and everything they do. People are superstitious and this continues for astronauts. Every country and company that has launched a rocket has their own space launch traditions. Russia has…


Transits Planetary

Transits: An Introduction

A transit “is the passage of a relatively small body across the disk of a larger body, usually a star or a planet, occulting only a very small area.”[1] Transits are different than an eclipse which is caused…


Galaxy Cluster Apparent Magnitude

Apparent Magnitude

Apparent magnitude is a measure of the brightness of a star or other astronomical object observed from the Earth. An object’s apparent magnitude depends on its intrinsic luminosity, its distance from Earth, and any extinction of the object’s light caused by interstellar dust along the…



NGC 10 Deep Sky Objects

Deep Sky Objects: An Introduction

Deep-sky objects, often shortened to DSOs, are any astronomical object that is not an individual star or Solar System object. The classification is used mostly by amateur astronomers to denote visually observed faint naked eye and telescopic objects such as star clusters, nebulae and galaxies. This distinction is…