Introductions

Atmosphere Atmospheric Science

Atmospheric Science

Atmospheric science is the study of the Earth’s atmosphere and its various inner-working physical processes. The field of atmospheric science has since been extended to the field of planetary science and the study of the atmospheres of the planets and natural satellites of the solar…


Sunspot solar maximum Solar Cycle 25

Solar Maximum Explained

After looking at the solar minimum in depth, it is only natural to discuss the opposite effect, which is the solar maximum. Solar maximum, sometimes abbreviated as solar max, is a regular period of greatest Sun activity during the…


Gravity Fundamental Forces

Gravity: An Introduction

Gravity is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy are brought toward. Another term that is often used to describe how this works is that objects gravitate toward one another. As gravitational attraction of the original gaseous matter…


SpaceX #LaunchAmerica Space Launch Traditions NASA Future Spaceflight CRS-21

Space Launch Traditions: An Introduction

Everyone has a tradition for anything and everything they do. People are superstitious and this continues for astronauts. Every country and company that has launched a rocket has their own space launch traditions. Russia has…


Transits Planetary

Transits: An Introduction

A transit “is the passage of a relatively small body across the disk of a larger body, usually a star or a planet, occulting only a very small area.”[1] Transits are different than an eclipse which is caused…


Galaxy Cluster Apparent Magnitude

Apparent Magnitude

Apparent magnitude is a measure of the brightness of a star or other astronomical object observed from the Earth. An object’s apparent magnitude depends on its intrinsic luminosity, its distance from Earth, and any extinction of the object’s light caused by interstellar dust along the…



NGC 10 Deep Sky Objects

Deep Sky Objects: An Introduction

Deep-sky objects, often shortened to DSOs, are any astronomical object that is not an individual star or Solar System object. The classification is used mostly by amateur astronomers to denote visually observed faint naked eye and telescopic objects such as star clusters, nebulae and galaxies. This distinction is…


Messier Objects

Messier Objects: An Introduction

The Messier Objects are a set of 110 astronomical objects catalogued by the French astronomer Charles Messier in his Catalogue des Nébuleuses et des Amas d’Étoiles. Interestingly, Charles Messier was actually fascinated with finding comets, which meant that to avoid confusing…


NGC 10 Deep Sky Objects

What Are NGC Objects?

Simplified to NGC as an acronym, which represents New General Catalogue is a catalogue of deep-sky objects compiled by John Louis Emil Dreyer in 1888 that contains 7,840 objects. These objects are known to include many deep space objects, including galaxies, star clusters, emission nebulae and absorption…