Introductions

Double Stars

Double Stars

In observational astronomy, a double star or visual double is a pair of stars that appear close to each other as viewed from Earth, especially with the aid of optical telescopes. The first double stars…

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Space Law Space Policy

Space Policy: An Introduction

Space policy can be defined as the political decision-making process for, and application of, public policy of a state regarding spaceflight and uses of outer space, both for civilian, scientific and commercial, and military purposes. This is significantly…


Space Weather

Space Weather: An Introduction

The technical definition of space weather can be said to be a branch of space physics and aeronomy concerned with the time varying conditions within the Solar System. It is worth noting that these features are distinct from but…


Atmosphere Atmospheric Science

The Atmosphere Of The Earth: An Introduction

The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth’s gravity. The atmosphere of Earth protects life on Earth by creating pressure allowing for liquid water to exist on the Earth’s surface, absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation, warming the…


Gravitational Waves

Gravitational Waves: An Introduction

Gravitational Waves can be defined as disturbances in the curvature of spacetime, generated by accelerated masses, that propagate as waves outward from their source at the speed of light. This means that gravitational waves transport energy as gravitational radiation, which is…


Gravity Assist

Gravity Assist: The Basics

In orbital mechanics and aerospace engineering, a gravity assist is the use of the relative movement and gravity of a planet or other astronomical object to alter the path and speed of a spacecraft, typically to save propellant and reduce expense. The origins of a gravity assist can trace its origins to the…


Atmosphere Atmospheric Science

Atmospheric Science

Atmospheric science is the study of the Earth’s atmosphere and its various inner-working physical processes. The field of atmospheric science has since been extended to the field of planetary science and the study of the atmospheres of the planets and natural satellites of the solar…


Sunspot solar maximum Solar Cycle 25

Solar Maximum Explained

After looking at the solar minimum in depth, it is only natural to discuss the opposite effect, which is the solar maximum. Solar maximum, sometimes abbreviated as solar max, is a regular period of greatest Sun activity during the…


Gravity Fundamental Forces

Gravity: An Introduction

Gravity is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy are brought toward. Another term that is often used to describe how this works is that objects gravitate toward one another. As gravitational attraction of the original gaseous matter…


SpaceX #LaunchAmerica Space Launch Traditions NASA Future Spaceflight

Space Launch Traditions: An Introduction

Everyone has a tradition for anything and everything they do. People are superstitious and this continues for astronauts. Every country and company that has launched a rocket has their own space launch traditions. Russia has…